RSPN was founded as a citizen based non-profit, non-governmental environment organization in 1987 to support environment conservation in Bhutan. The Society was registered under the Companies Act of Bhutan until last quarter of 2009 without proper authority which regulated the non-profit organization, with a special clause on non-profit entity. With the establishment of Civil Society Organization Authority (CSOA) of Bhutan, the Society is now registered under Civil Society Organization Authority as one of the Public Benefit Organizations (PBO).
RSPN works on environmental education and advocacy, conservation and sustainable livelihoods, research and emerging issues like climate change, solid waste and water.
RSPN programmes are based on its five year strategic plan and include species, ecosystem, and community based conservation programs outside of the protected areas system. All of the RSPN's program continue to involve students/ individuals in schools, institutions, and communities throughout the country for vairous project activities.
Regular advocacy programs on emerging environmental problems are also carried out with the help of local volunteers, stakeholder organisations, partners and members. Efforts include waste cleanup and management campaigns, networking and collaboration with relevant national, regional and international agencies. Institutional development and capacity building for research and increased public involvement in environmental programs are priorities of the organization for sustained conservation efforts.